Fine almost soft touch- the finest types of Merino (super fine) have fibres of 16 micrometres (microns) in diameter, i.e. 0.016 millimetres; for comparison: human hair is 100 micrometres thick;
Thermoregulation ability- woollen textile materials create on the body microclimate which protects the skin from fast penetration of the outside climate - either cold in winter (wool holds warmth) or hot in summer (wool stays cold)
Sweat conduction- the fibre surface (scales) is hydrophobic and wicks sweat away; it either evaporates or, if retained (for example by another outside clothing), soaks inside the fibre which is, on the contrary, hydrophilic. However, wool fibre is able to absorb moisture up to the volume of 1/3 of its weight (!). The key thing is that even due to its hydrophilic surface the fully “soaked” fibre still remains dry to the touch(!) and at the same time, it does not lose anything from its thermoregulation ability (!);
Breathability- despite its dense structure the woollen textile material is well breathable (“breathes”) even if the fibres are “soaked” with moisture. This property also enables moisture in the fibres to evaporate fast. Breathability is given by the irregular surface structure of the woollen fibre created by microscopic scales, its total natural twisting and last but not least, by the structure of modern woollen knitted fabrics.
Antibacterial ability- wool is a protein fibre and absorbs many harmful substances, including many viruses and bacteria, whereas it limits their decomposition or reproduction. The very important demonstration of this ability of the woollen fibre is the fact that woollen clothing does not smell even after multiple uses. Alternatively, it is sufficient to air woollen clothing and it gets rid of possible smells by itself.
Wool is anti allergenic- no allergic reactions to wool are known. However, this property cannot be confused with the fact that some people are so-called “allergic” to wool with regard to its touch. It is possible to avoid this “unpleasant” touch simply when you select Merino wool extra fine or even super fine (16 micrometres). These types of wool are very soft, almost silky to the touch.
Wool protects from UV radiation- many synthetic fibres do not do this at all or they do it insufficiently.
Elasticity- knitted fabrics made of wool are naturally elastic, so no added synthetic elastomers are needed in knitted fabric. It is possible to extend woollen fibres by up to 30% and then they return to their original shape;
Hollow fibre- sheep’s wool is naturally a hollow fibre (!);
Woollen fibre is still the only known textile material that has all of these properties at once!!! It is a man of many talents amongst fibres, a sort of “decathlete” in the world of textile fibres.